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        1. 首頁 > 逐夢教育學習資源庫 > SAT學習資源 > 真題分享
        2. 【超詳細版本】3月亞太SAT考試考情回顧

          2019-07-14

          3月SAT考試作為2019年年度首考,備受關注。這是美國大學理事會在全球范圍內的第35場正式考試,也是在亞太地區第二次安排3月份考試。


          春雨連綿,反讓香港這座城市充滿朦朧意境。伴隨攜帶著生機的春風,近日里備考疲乏的同學和老師們也稍有輕松之感。終于卸下SAT考試這塊大石,同學們可以適當放松休息一會;但是我們還要繼續來看看這次考試都考了哪些內容 ,有哪些新的考情趨勢需要研討。


          總體而言,這次SAT考試難度中等,且部分重復北美三月Schoolday題目。具體來說:閱讀和語法的整體難度一般,文章也比較容易讀懂,考點都比較常規。



          01
          閱讀部分


          1學生與教授的故事


          第一篇小說:有難度。文章開頭有懸念。


          寫了一個學生Liz受到教授的郵件之后非常擔心,誤以為教授要求自己退出生物課,而矛盾是:她非常喜歡生物課。中間部分描寫了她在課上的種種表現。文末揭露懸念,其實教授有一個summer research position推薦給了Liz。


          主要講述的是學生和教授的特點,以及兩者之間的差異。題目相對不難,基本都能一一定位。注意文中對教授的性格刻畫,考到了循證題。


          文章來源:https://firstgen.naspa.org/book/make-your-home-among-strangers


          2談論行政首長的薪金問題


          第二篇歷史文本:富蘭克林1787年在國會的演講


          男性面對利益沖突,會選擇暴力方式,爭奪權力。


          Two passions of men that have great impact, 一種是ambition, 第二是the pursuit of money and power. If you show a man a post of power, 他會不遺余力地得到它。接著作者用英國政府中存在這樣的職位競爭,導致conflict不斷來支持前面的觀點。(此處考了一道尋證題)


          第二段以問題開頭—是哪種人會不遺余力獲取權力金錢呢?一定不是愛好和平,humble, patient這一類人;卻是ambitious, 有欲望的人。


          第三段講the conflict between the governing and the governed, 人民越不想被統治,統治階級對權力和金錢的需求和欲望越大,他要錢去討好支持他的黨派們以鞏固自己的地位,錢肯定要從人民稅收中來,這是主要矛盾點。


          需要注意,這篇文章是常見的歷史類文章的套路,看似談論的都是普通事情,但是最終還是要跟國家大事結合到一起。很有有意思的是,這篇文章和可汗歷史L2P1的哪篇演講是同時發生的,只是節選的部分不一致而已。


          歷史原文: Benjamin Franklin, speech in the constitutional convention on the subject of salaries 


          文章來源:https://www.bartleby.com/268/8/12.html



          富蘭克林認為“世間有兩種愛好對人間的事情有著強有力的影響,那就是野心和貪心,也就是權和錢。如果把它們拆開,那么兩愛之中的任何一愛都會成為發揮人們干勁的強大動力。如果他們看到一個位置既帶來權力又帶來金錢,那么他們就會不顧一切地去謀取這個位置。


          正因為英國有大量這樣的位置,所以英國的派系林立,國家長期陷于分裂,政府不能集中精力,在倉促間就發動戰爭,常常還要迫使國家接受不光彩的媾和”。


          “那些投身陰謀詭計、百般爭奪、結黨營私、不顧廉恥來謀得這種名利雙收的位置的人將是些什么人呢?他們不是明智和穩健的人,不是愛好和平和安定的人。他們是膽大和狂暴的人,他們是一心求成為一己私利不辭辛勞的人”。


          “我擔心這樣一個既帶來權力又帶來金錢的位置,會使占據這個位置的人有朝一日成為君主,我們的政府,有朝一日會成為君主政府”。


          “就近而論,難到我們沒有看到這樣一個事實嗎?我們的一位最重要的官員,我們全軍的總司令,一位我現在不愿用任何其他的頌辭來觸犯他的愛國者,他負責軍隊作戰八年之久而未取分文。


          他與英勇作戰的戰友備嘗艱苦和危難,還有這個職務帶來的日以繼夜的憂心。難道我們不相信可以在合眾國內找出三到四個這樣的人嗎”?


          “對我來說節省薪俸并不是我的目的。我所擔心的是支取巨額薪俸所帶來的后患。正因為如此,我才提出了修正案。如果沒人附議,我也心安理得,因為我說出了我的意見,盡了我的責任”。



          3the greatest show on earth: the evidence of revolution


          第三篇科學是理查德·道金斯的文章節選。


          一種名為ps 的動物,originally from 一個地方名為pk, 在另外一個叫PM 的地方是不存在的,1971年的時候,科學家把一部分ps 這種動物運到PM。2008年再比較兩個物種的時候,科學家預測PM上的PS和PK上的PS是一樣的。(緊接著后面的內容出了尋證題)但是這樣推測是沒有道理的,因為不管怎樣這36年PK上的PS一定也是進化了的,有改變的。


          第二段篇幅非常短: 那兩個地方的PS有什么區別?PM上的PS這種動物頭更大,更寬,更高,咬肌更發達。他們相對于PK上的PS更多吃草,PK上的更多吃Insects。


          第三段既然PM上的動物吃草,為什么要更發的的咬肌呢?因為植物有細胞壁,相比肉類,更需要強大的咬肌。而且PM上的動物胃里有特殊的細菌和其他微生物幫助消化植物。 其他的不同之處是PM上的PS密度更大。


          蜥蜴的進化,三種中的一種經過短暫的三十年的進化,食物從昆蟲變成了植物。實驗過程,身體結構是否發生變法,如何適應吃植物的生活。


          本文主要話題還是??嫉膭游镞M化,凡是涉及這類文章的都存在比較多的“差異”和“缺陷”的考點,同學在閱讀的時候一定要讀細,不然很容易遺落信息。 


          文章來源:https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Greatest_Show_on_Earth:_The_Evidence_for_Evolution 


          4Wray Herbert: Onsecond thought: outsmarting your mind’s hard-wired habits.


          第四篇社科類。文章開頭介紹了一個現象:人們根據對貨幣或事物的熟悉度來判斷事物的價值,并不總是根據事物的客觀價值。


          后面的實驗部分,設計的三個實驗證明上述結論:

          第一個實驗是給被實驗人1 美元和1個另外一種貨幣,讓其對生活常用品進行評估價值,盡管兩者在價值上相同,但是由于人們只對一美元熟悉,普遍對一美元的購買力賦予更高價值。


          為了進一步證明的普遍性,實驗人員給了被實驗著不熟悉的貨幣,這次受實驗者對于不熟悉的貨幣評估較低。


          之后用第三個實驗對人們對與熟悉度的偏好有個更進一步的驗證。強調了人們習慣性賦予其較高價值。


          5科學雙篇 


          第一篇文章取自:Robert Hazen的Genesis: The ScientificQuest for Life's Origin,第二篇文章取自北卡大學醫學院的文章biochemistsresurrect: molecular fossils: findings challenge the attempts about origins oflife。


          上世紀80年代對于核糖核酸核糖核酸(RNAribozymes)的發現開啟了人們理解生命起源的新篇章,1989年兩位科學因此領域研究獲得諾貝爾獎。在以前的知識體系下,DNA和蛋白質是雞生蛋蛋生雞的關系:DNA攜帶信息,蛋白質制造和表達信息,根據對RNA的最新研究發現,核糖核酸核糖核酸可能同時具備這兩項功能,由此產生了RNA世界觀。


          第二篇文章中的Carter教授對RNA的功能產生了質疑。首先核糖核酸核糖核酸進化到當今的需要很長時間,在地球存在4.5billions年里,這種發展進化速度是不可能的,地球不具備物質前提。其次,沒有證據表明核糖核酸核糖核酸在幾十億年前存在。Carter教授使用最新技術進行了研究。人類基因密碼由兩大當代的酶( enzymes)族系轉譯。Carter教授發現這兩大族系由共有的內核來產生分子化石(molecular fossil),教授將其命名為Urzymes. 并推斷出此物質可能是古時早期生命信息的的存在狀態。


          其中一篇摘自Biochemists resurrect 'molecular fossils': Findings challenge assumptions about origins of life


          普遍反映本篇雙篇文章文字較難。由于是基因科學,所以涉及大量不熟悉的生詞以及很多生僻的概念。這類文章對學生的閱讀能力和邏輯能力(能否把信息融匯在一起)要求較高。但兩篇文章由于觀點對立鮮明,觀點的把握其實難度不高。有學生表示很像托福的綜合寫作,一篇是閱讀,一篇是聽力。


          文章來源:https://www.nhbs.com/genesis-the-scientific-quest-for-lifes-origin-book



          02
          文法部分


          文法中最擔心的就是詞匯題,不過盡管好幾篇都是一上來一堆連著的詞匯題,但沒有特別難的單詞,考察到了dependent、depending這樣的搭配用法,也有兩道考一個詞在不同位置的意思。雖然不難,但是為了盡量不做錯,做起題目來還是有些擔心。


          1Dickens takes the stage


          英國著名作家Dickens在寫作之前做過表演,因此他想到把表演和寫作結合起來,朗讀他的小說給觀眾聽。舞臺布置非常簡單,只需要他的出現和他的聲音,他曾經在一場表演中模仿過23個人的聲音。Dickens有過舞臺工作經驗,他經常和觀眾互動,很多觀眾成了他的朋友。他做了472場這樣的表演,是第一個成為名人的作家。


          2Fritz Pollard Beyond the Gridiron


          FritzPollard是1913年到1937年間著名的足球運動員和教練,他退役后從事里各種職業來促進美國黑人的職業發展。他最開始做專欄作家,還做過黑人的經紀人,建立了sunstan studio,除此之外他還做過稅務咨詢等,他把所有這些成就都歸功于他在足球上的成功。


          3Why we still need mapmkers


          講的是隨著科技的發展,是否還需要制作地圖的人,全文作者的觀點是依舊需要的 。


          4篇詞匯題貌似只有1題考了considerating和considerable的區別,考察considerable做大量的意思比較簡單。句子排序題只有1題,圖表題在最后一篇出了1題,基本上直接看圖就能得出選項。文章難度都一般,很容易讀懂。


          考到一題though在句子中間做插入語的情況,有2題transition的題目  一題是furthermore besides  by contrast 區別,一題考到了rather。


          4The art of a cat’s lap


          文章由Smith觀察他家的貓入手。他發現貓喝奶是從舌頭下面流下去。于是通過某種技術研究貓的舐食,慢動作回放,觀察出確實是喝水通過舌頭下方流下去的。MIT研究人員證實了Smith的部分研究結果,速度越快,越不容易收到重力的負面影響。


          而且,研究人員發現,lapping和貓科動物的質量mass成反比關系,體積越大,lapping越慢。比如,家貓每秒3.5-4次lapping, 而獅子是每秒1.5-2次。因為大體積的貓科動物,舌頭較寬,形成的water column也會重,這時重力會起作用,導致掉落下來。



          03
          數學部分


          1Section 3


          涉及到的知識點:


          八道一次函數,考察形式包括應用題, 圖表題,一元一次函數,二元一次;函數其中斜率的考察屢次出現。


          六道一元二次函數題目。微有難度的題目是填空題,以應用題的形式出現:18塊錢賣Tshirt可以賣60件,每降一塊錢,多賣10件,問總共最多賺多少錢?


          2Section 4


          部分題目題干略長,總體難度不大,部分邏輯題較易出錯


          重點關注:


          18道一次函數的題,考察形式和section 非常類似,包括應用題, 圖表題,一元一次函數,二元一次;函數其中斜率的考察屢次出現


          一元二次函數和指數函數,指數函數題目出現兩次,都非常簡單,包括一道帶圖表的選擇題和填空題。


          填空題內容:


          科學家培養細菌, 每天的Beginning 都是前一天的beginning數量的兩倍,第一天開始是20個,第六天開始是多少?


          line of best fit考了兩道,都以帶圖表的選擇題形式出現


          一道三角函數題目,非常簡單。直角三角形,兩個度數和兩條邊已知,問cosA



          04
          寫作部分



          這次寫作的文章題目取材于NewYork Times,關于環境污染的問題,這類文章比較貼近日常生活,難度不大。


          1第一篇



          Adaptedfrom Marcus Stern, “How to Prevent an Oil Train Disaster” ?2015 by The New YorkTimes Company. Originally published May 19, 2015. 


          1 The Obama administration recently issued new safety rules for oil trains, to take effectin October. But it didn’t do the one thing many independent petroleum engineers say could immediately reduce the risk of a deadly disaster: require energy producers to remove more of the volatile gases that the oil contains when it comes out of the ground, before they load the crude into rail tankers.


          2 This can bedone easily at most wells. North Dakota recently required producers to extractsome of these gases, which include propane and butane. The state is thee picenter of the new oil boom and was the departure point for most of the more than 400,000 oil tank cars that rolled across the United States in 2013.


          3 But the North Dakota rule is still too lax, and instead of toughening it, the new federal rules focus on strengthening the tankers that carry the oil. That is a long overdue step that will take five years to complete. And already, the oil industry, which owns many of the tankers and will bear much of the cost of upgrading them, has sued to extend the deadline.


          4 Oil companieshave a financial stake in keeping the volatile gases in the oil. When thegas-laden oil arrives at refineries, the gases can be separated, processed and sold for added profit. The gases can even be sold overseas, something that can’t be done with the oil because crude oil can’t be exported.


          5 If producers are forced to remove these lucrative gases at the well, that significant additional revenue would be lost. North Dakota doesn’t have the degasification plants and pipelines needed to process the gas and get it to market.


          6 ….. As the trains rumble along, the gases begin separating from the oil, forming an explosive blanket of vapors on top of the roughly 30,000 gallons of flammable oil that a single tanker usually contains.


          7 If aderailment occurs and the tanker ruptures, a spark could ignite those vaporsand send a mushroom-shaped fireball hundreds of feet into the sky, and flaming oil in all directions. A burning tanker could ignite the next one.


          8 That’s what happened in Lac-Mégantic. It has also happened innine other places in North America in the past two years, including Alabama,Virginia, West Virginia, Illinois and twice in North Dakota. Fortunately,nobody died in those other accidents because they occurred in rural, isolatedareas. But oil trains also run through crowded urban and suburban neighborhoods. Albany is a major hub for oil shipments by trains from NorthDakota, with trains traveling south along the Hudson River toward mid-Atlantic refineries.


          9 The Obama administration is well aware of this risk. After the earlier oil train explosions, the administration issued a series of emergency orders and safety alerts stressing the oil’s volatility and the “imminent hazard” it posed to communities along the tracks.


          10 But after almost two years of orders, alerts and testing, the 395-page final rule offered no explanation for why the trains were exploding and took no steps to requireoil developers to reduce the oil’s volatility before shipping it by rail. Instead, the administration said it planned to spend up to two more years studying whether — and perhaps how — to regulate oil’s volatility.


          11 Some have suggested that federal action was unnecessary because on April 1 North Dakota began requiring oil companies to reduce their oil’s vapor pressure to no more than 13.7 pounds per square inch. But this is clearly inadequate. Some of the oiltank cars that have ignited have had vapor pressures well below that.


          12 The new rules have other short comings. No disclosure is required to alert the general public that oil trains will be passing through their borders. Emergency responders canget the information, but wider distribution raised security concerns. Andrailroads are not required to have comprehensive emergency plans, as recommended by the National Transportation Safety Board and Canada’sTransportation Safety Board.


          13 The new rules on oil trains don’t go nearly far enough to protect the town centers, schools and homes that these trains pass by with increasing regularity. The Obama administration should quickly enact an aggressive interim volatility standard while it searches for a more durable solution.



          譯文:


          奧巴馬政府最近發布了新的石油列車安全規則,將于10月生效。但很多獨立石油工程師說,這并不可以立即降低致命災難風險:要求能源生產商在將原油裝上鐵路油輪之前,去除更多石油從地下開采出來時所含的揮發性氣體。


          這在大多數井里都能很容易做到。北達科他州最近要求生產商去除其中一些氣體,包括丙烷和丁烷。該州是新一輪石油熱潮的中心,也是2013年全美40多萬輛油罐車的起點站。


          但是,北達科他州的規定仍然過于寬松,聯邦政府的新規定并沒有使之更加嚴格,而是把重點放在加強運輸石油的油輪上。這是一個姍姍來遲的步驟,需要五年時間才能完成。擁有許多油輪并將承擔大部分升級成本的石油業已經提起訴訟,要求延長最后期限。


          石油公司保留石油中的揮發性氣體會給他們帶來經濟利益。當富含天然氣的石油到達煉油廠時,這些氣體可以被分離、加工并出售,從而獲得額外的利潤。這些氣體甚至可以銷往海外,而石油卻不能,因為原油不能出口。


          如果生產商被迫從油井中移除這些利潤豐厚的氣體,那將會損失可觀的額外收入。北達科他州沒有處理天然氣,并將其推向市場所需的脫氣工廠和管道。


          .....當火車隆隆駛過時,這些氣體開始從石油中分離出來,在一輛含有大約3萬加侖易燃石油的油罐車上,形成了一個爆炸性的蒸汽層。


          如果發生脫軌,油輪破裂,火星就會點燃這些蒸汽,并將一個蘑菇形狀的火球拋向數百英尺高的空中,四下都是燃燒的石油。一艘燃燒的油輪可以點燃下一艘。


          這就是在拉克-梅甘蒂克發生的事情。在過去兩年中,這種情況在北美其他九個地方也發生過,包括阿拉巴馬州、弗吉尼亞州、西弗吉尼亞州、伊利諾伊州和北達科他州。幸運的是,沒有人在其他事故中死亡,因為這些事故發生在偏遠的農村地區。但是,石油列車也會經過擁擠的城市和郊區社區。奧爾巴尼是北達科他州火車運輸石油的主要樞紐,火車沿著哈德遜河向南駛向大西洋中部的煉油廠。


          奧巴馬政府很清楚這種風險。在早些時候的油罐車爆炸事件之后,政府發布了一系列緊急命令和安全警報,強調石油的揮發性,以及它對沿線社區構成的“迫在眉睫的危險”。


          但是,在近兩年的調查、警報和測試之后,這份長達395頁的最終規定并沒有解釋火車爆炸的原因,也沒有采取任何措施要求石油開發商在通過鐵路運輸之前降低石油的揮發性。相反,奧巴馬政府表示,計劃再花兩年時間研究是否——或許是如何——監管油價的波動。


          有些人認為聯邦政府的行動是不必要的,因為從4月1日起,北達科他州開始要求石油公司將石油的蒸汽壓降低到每平方英寸不超過13.7磅。但這顯然是不夠的。一些已經點燃的油罐車的蒸汽壓遠遠低于這個數值。


          新規定還有其他缺點。不需要披露任何信息來提醒公眾,石油列車將會通過他們的邊境。應急響應人員可以得到這些信息,但更廣泛的分發引起了安全方面的擔憂。鐵路也不需要像美國國家運輸安全委員會(National Transportation Safety Board)和加拿大運輸安全委員會(Canada 's Transportation Safety Board)建議的那樣,制定全面的應急計劃。


          關于石油火車的新規定遠不足以保護這些火車越來越頻繁地經過的城鎮中心、學校和家庭。奧巴馬政府應在尋求更持久解決方案的同時,迅速制定一個激進的中期波動性標準。




          2第二篇




          Looking out across Los Angeles from Mt. Wilson Observatory at night, the hills andmountains look like islands in a sea of light. It was here that Edwin Hubblefirst proved our universe was expanding at a rapid pace. From this vantagepoint you can still make out the major constellations, but drive into the light bubble and suddenly the cosmos feels awfully far away. The city shines sobright it blocks out the stars, a phenomenon known as "skyglow."


          Light seeps into the sky from stadiums, malls, parking lots, offices and billboards. But streetlights, with their harsh bulbs, are the worst offenders.

          The215,000 streetlights in Los Angeles are meant to thwart more than fumbled keys and stubbed toes — they're a luminous security blanket, or so the Los Angeles Bureauof Street Lighting would have you believe. The bureau's slogan: "Bright Lights, Safe Nights." Other cities use the motto too.


          We intuitively assume that more lights mean less crime. Indeed, police are often taught that, second to more cops, good lighting is the best crime deterrent. 


          Yet decades of research show there's no scientific reason to believe that darkerstreets are inherently more dangerous. And, increasingly, researchers arefinding that excess light is toxic for both humans and wildlife.


          In onestudy, published July 28 in the Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health,researchers examined 14 years of data from 62 local authorities across Englandand Wales, hunting for crime and collision trends among agencies that reducedtheir lighting.


          England'scouncils — local governing bodies — have sought to slash costs and carbonemissions in recent years under pressure from the national government. Inresponse, 106 councils either dimmed or turned off some streetlights, affectingan estimated 750,000 lamps altogether.


          Noteveryone is happy about the darker skies. The "great streetlight switch-off" has sparked a political debate, with the country's automobile association asserting that six people have died since 2009 as a direct resultand opposition politicians rushing to lay blame.


          But the health researchers found no link between collisions and lighting despite studying about 14,500 miles of roadways where streetlights were dimmed, lightedfor only part of the night or shut off entirely. They also examined lighting'seffect on crime and similarly found no increase in burglary, auto theft,robbery, violence or sexual assault in areas where lighting policy had changed.


          Thescientists published a companion study based on surveys of 520 people living indarkened areas. Many residents said they didn't even notice the dimming, letalone feel threatened by an uptick in crime.


          Other studies back up these results. In 1998, for example, Chicago tried to fight crime with a three-phase plan that included upgrading 175,000 streetlights, aswell as lights in transit stations and alleys around the city. The city kept experimental control areas unchanged and found that crime consistently increased in both the well-lighted and the control areas. Illinois criminal justiceofficials concluded that strolling down a dark alley was no more dangerous thandoing so in a well-lighted one.


          All this should make taxpayers uneasy. Last week, the Cities at Night project released areport estimating that the European Union alone spends about $7 billionannually to power streetlights.


          But there's something much more troubling than wasted money about losing the night.A growing body of biological research suggests that night time lighting messeswith the circadian rhythms of humans and other animals, wreaking havoc oneverything from sleep patterns to DNA repair.

          Studies have shown that nighttime light exposure is a risk factor for some cancers,diabetes, heart disease and obesity. As scientists continue to gather evidence,the American Medical Assn. has already recommended that cities reduce light pollution and that people avoid staring at electronic screens after dark.


          LEDs areof particular concern. Cities around the world are converting from traditional yellow sodium-vapor lamps, which cast their light in a narrow range, tobroad-spectrum LED streetlights. Los Angeles has installed 165,000 LEDs inrecent years, slashing streetlight energy use by 60% and netting $8 million inenergy savings annually.


          Theproblem is that these bright lamps increase skyglow by emitting more blue light than the older technology. They also could have unintended effects on wildlife.Artificial lights can disrupt navigation, mating and feeding among the manynocturnal animals that share our cities.


          A University of Bristol study published this month showed that certain mothscan't perform evasive maneuvers against predatory bats under LEDs. And recent research in New Zealand shows some insects are 48% more attracted to the newLEDs than they were to the old-fashioned lights. The researchers worry thatwidespread use of the new technology will create a "white-lightnight" that intensifies light pollution's pressure on ecosystems.


          The psychological loss is less measurable.


          When the 1994 Northridge earthquake hit, some area residents actually called 911 toreport a strange cloud hovering overhead — it was the Milky Way, the nebulousand star-rich center of our galaxy.


          What happens when people grow up without stars? Do they lose their connection to the cosmos that our ancestors tracked so carefully, night after night?



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